Git

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Table of contents

Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.

Git configuration

The Git configuration-file is usually located in $HOME, /home/<username>/.gitconfig, or in $XDG_CONFIG_HOME1, /home/<username>/.config/git/config.

Initial setup

$ git config --global user.email user@example.com
$ git config --global user.name "Firstname Lastname"

Multiple configurations

I like to keep my personal and work projects separate, so that I can differentiate between the two. And I also like to commit and sign my commits with different email addresses.

In my config I have the following;

[includeIf "gitdir:<path-to-personal-dir>"]
  path = <path-to-personal-config>
[includeIf "gitdir:<path-to-work-dir>"]
  path = <path-to-work-config>

So whenever I’m in my <path-to-work-dir> I’m using my work email instead of my personal email for my commits.

Aliases

Inside your gitconfig you can specify aliases that you can use with the git command.

An example:

[alias]
  c = commit
  ca = c -a

You can use your aliases within the aliases as well, like I did above.

Global .gitignore

Within your Git configuration add the following section:

[core]
  excludesfile = <path-to-ignore-file>

If you use $XDG_CONFIG_HOME path, you can keep the global .gitignore within the same directory, ie. /home/<username>/.config/git/ignore.

Remotes

In order to push your local repository to a remote like GitHub etc., you need to specify a remote:

git remote add origin git@<remote-url>.git

Multiple push-urls for a single remote

Credit.

Firstly you need to specify the original remote-url as a push-url:

$ git remote set-url --add --push origin git@original/repo.git

And then you can specify the other push-urls:

$ git remote set-url --add --push origin git@original/repo.git
$ git remote set-url --add --push origin git@second/repo.git
$ git remote set-url --add --push origin git@third/repo.git

Verify with git remote:

$ git remote
origin git@original/repo.git (fetch)
origin git@original/repo.git (push) # <-- Notice the (push) for each of the lines with the same remote.
origin git@second/repo.git (push)
origin git@third/repo.git (push)

And now, when you run git push it will push to all three remotes/urls with just one command.

Commits

Message

A good commit message can be vital for when new people join your project and when you need to look back at your history.

Consider a commit message like an e-mail or a letter, it’s a message with a title and body.

The first line of the commit message should be written in present-tense2, and shouldn’t contain a period nor exceed 50 characters. Use the first line as a title to explain what the commit is about. The second line should always be blank. The third line should contain your message with more descriptions if they are needed.

Example:

<title>
# Blank line
<message with actual description about what has been done>

The way you would do that is with:

$ git commit -m '<title>' \
  -m '<message with actual description about what has been done>'

Templates

You can also create commit templates, so that you don’t need to remember everything.

You add this in your configuration like this:

[commit]
  template = <path-to-commit-template>

GPG signing

You can sign your commits using your GPG key(s).

Specify a GPG-program in your Git configuration:

[gpg]
  program = gpg

And under your [user] in the same configuration you need to specify which key to use:

[user]
  ...
  signingkey = <fingerprint>

In order to commit with your signature you need to use -s to add the Signed-off-by and -S to get the appropriate GPG-keyid (this is why we added the fingerprint in the configuration.).

Bonus: Add an alias for always commit with a signature:

[alias]
  c = commit -s -S

And now you can commit with with git c -m <your-message>!

See contributors (with count)

git shortlog -sne
1

https://wiki.archlinux.org/title/XDG_Base_Directory

2

https://stackoverflow.com/a/3580764